India and several other regions will be able to witness a “ring of fire” in the sky on June 21 as the first solar eclipse (Surya Grahan) of 2020 will be upon us. It will be an annular solar eclipse that is where the phrase ‘ring of fire’ comes from. It will start at 9:15am IST and reach its peak at 12:10pm IST. The June 21 annular solar eclipse will be visible from parts of Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, and of course, India. Additionally, there are three more eclipse that will occur in 2020 including two lunar eclipses and one more solar eclipse.
Solar eclipse June 2020
An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is farthest from the Earth, but still between the Earth and the Sun, and blocks most of the Sun. At some point during the eclipse, the Moon will be perfectly aligned in the centre of the Sun, placing the antumbra shadow of the Moon on the Earth and revealing a circle of brightness or “ring of fire” or annular shape (ring shape) of the Sun for us to witness.
According to data by NASA, the Moon will block 99.4 percent of the Sun at its peak and will be visible from Northern India.
According to TimeandDate, the annular solar eclipse of June 21 will be visible from parts of Africa including Central African Republic, Congo, Ethiopia, South of Pakistan, and Northern India, as well as China. It will start at 9:15am IST and will reach its peak at 12:10pm IST. It will end in about 3 hours at 3:04pm. The annular solar eclipse will be visible without any equipment, but it is recommended to use some kind of eye protection.
There are three more eclipse that will happen in 2020.
July 4-5, 2020 Lunar Eclipse
A penumbral lunar eclipse will take place on July 4-5. A penumbral lunar eclipse (Upchaya Chandra Grahan) occurs when the Earth blocks some of the Sun’s light from directly reaching the Moon and the outer part of the Earth’s shadow, called the ‘penumbra’, covers all or part of the Moon. It is sometimes mistaken as a full Moon as it is harder to spot.
The July 4-5 penumbral lunar eclipse will be visible from South/West Europe, much of North America, South America, Pacific, much of Africa Atlantic, and Antarctica. It will start at 11:07pm EDT on July 4 (8:37am IST, July 5) and leave the penumbra at 1:52am EDT on July 5 (9:22pm IST, July 5). It will not be visible from India.
November 29-30, 2020 Lunar Eclipse
Another penumbral lunar eclipse will occur on November 29-30. It will be visible from much of Europe, much of Asia, North America, South America, Australia, and a few other regions. The eclipse will start at 1:32am EDT (11:02am IST) on November 30 and end at 5:53am EDT (3:23pm IST) on November 30. It will not be visible from India.
November 29-30, 2020 Solar Eclipse
On December 14, the last total solar eclipse of 2020 will occur, and the Moon will come between the Earth and Sun, casting its darkest shadow – the umbra – on the Earth. As the name suggests, the Moon will cover the entire disk of the Sun. The total solar eclipse will be visible from Chile, some parts of Argentina, some regions in South America, South-west Africa, and Antarctica. It will start at 7:03pm IST and end at 9:43pm IST. It will not be visible from India.
Is Mi Notebook 14 series the best affordable laptop range for India? We discussed this on Orbital, our weekly technology podcast, which you can subscribe to via Apple Podcasts or RSS, download the episode, or just hit the play button below.
3D-Printed Food Developed by Researchers, Could Help People Eat Alternative Protein Sources
Future food supply concerns were the focus of a team of Singaporean academics, who eventually chose to generate them using 3D printing. The need for foods high in protein is anticipated to grow as the world’s population ages and expands, raising concerns over rising greenhouse gas emissions, and increased water and land use associated with conventional methods of raising animals for food. People have already started using alternate sources of proteins from plants, algae, and insects in several regions of Africa, Asia, and South America to produce nutrient-dense, sustainable food.
However, some people might find it strange to eat things like algae and bugs. To make eating insects a little more appealing, the research team developed a novel method. To modify the flavour, they opted to blend the crickets or larvae with more widely consumed veggies like carrots.
In order to effectively include alternative proteins in food inks, researchers from Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH), and the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC) worked together on this project. By limiting the number of experimental runs, the study team minimised time and resources while optimising protein inks.
Professor Chua Chee Kai, the co-author from SUTD, said that for many people, the look and flavour of such alternative proteins might be unsettling. Kai added that 3D food printing can change how food is presented and go beyond consumer inhibitions.
For instance, to provide a more recognisable flavour, typical foods like carrots can be combined with alternative proteins like crickets. A 3D food printer can then extrude this blend of carrots and bugs to produce a dish that is both aesthetically pleasing and delicious.
The study was published in Food Hydrocolloids.
The team of researchers optimised the protein ink compositions with three variables—carrot powder, proteins, and xanthan gum—using the central composite design approach. In addition to flavour, nutrients, and colour, carrot powder assisted in giving the inks it was used to create mechanical strength.
They also experimented with different proteins like sericin, soy, spirulina, crickets, and black soldier fly larvae. Experimentally developed inks were tested for 3D printability and syneresis, with optimised inks obtaining the highest printability and the lowest syneresis.
Alternative proteins may eventually replace animal proteins as the primary source of protein consumed by humans, according to Prof Yi Zhang, the principal investigator from UESTC. This study suggests an organised engineering strategy for improving food inks, making it simple to create and customise aesthetically beautiful, flavourful, and nutritionally adequate food boosted with non-traditional proteins.
NASA’s Curiosity Rover Completes 10 Years of Exploring Mars — Here’s What It Has Found So Far
It’s been more than 10 years since the US space agency NASA’s Curiosity rover landed on Mars in search of ancient signs of life on the planet. Curiosity is part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission and is the biggest and the most capable rover ever sent to the Red Planet. Having launched on November 26, 2011, and making its descent on the Martian surface on August 5, 2012, Curiosity has so far covered 29 kilometres and ascended 625 metres on the Gale crater, where it landed. During its expedition so far, Curiosity has used its host of instruments and tools to examine if Mars ever had the right environmental conditions to support small life forms such as microbes.
Digging for evidence, the rover analysed 41 rock and soil samples on the planet in the past years. It scanned the skies of the Red Planet and sent intriguing pictures of shining clouds and drifting moons. With its radiation sensors, Curiosity has been capable of measuring the amount of radiation astronauts in future missions would be exposed to on Mars.
In its most significant finding, the rover concluded that the Gale crater had liquid water as well as the chemical building blocks and nutrients required for sustaining life at least tens of millions of years ago. It also determined that the crater had a lake and whose size waxed and waned over time. It explored the foothills of Mount Sharp in the crater where each layer offers signs on more recent era of the Red Planet’s environment.
Watch this video to know more as Curiosity turns 10:
“We’re seeing evidence of dramatic changes in the ancient Martian climate. The question now is whether the habitable conditions that Curiosity has found up to now persisted through these changes. Did they disappear, never to return, or did they come and go over millions of years?” said Ashwin Vasavada, Curiosity’s project scientist at NASA‘s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California.
Considering its abilities and efficiency, NASA recently extended Curiosity’s mission for three more years. Now, the rover is passing through a canyon, a new region that is thought to have formed after the water dried up and left salty minerals called sulfates. Scientists plan to explore this sulfate-rich region for the next few years and target particular sites like the Gediz Vallis channel for their study.
Dwarf Galaxies of Earth’s Second Closest Galaxy Cluster Devoid of Dark Matter Halos
When you ask an astronomer about dark matter, they will always mention about how the cosmos is filled with this enigmatic, unseen stuff. It is specifically found in the halos that encircle the majority of galaxies. The galaxy itself, as well as other galaxies nearby, are strongly gravitationally influenced by the mass of the halo. That has been the accepted theory on dark matter and how it affects galaxies. The concept of such halos is not without flaws, though. Evidently, there are certain weirdly shaped dwarf galaxies that appear to lack halos.
How is that feasible, then? Do they present a challenge to the observed dark matter halo hypotheses that are currently held?
Galaxies are shielded by dark matter halos or shells from the gravitational pull of their close galactic neighbours according to the so-called “standard model” of cosmology. This view is now being challenged in a study led by the University of Bonn and the University of Saint Andrews (Scotland).
The results suggest that these dark matter halos are absent from the dwarf galaxies in the Fornax Cluster, the second closest galaxy cluster to Earth. The findings were published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Elena Asencio, a PhD candidate at the University of Bonn and the principal author of the study, said, “We introduce an innovative way of testing the standard model based on how much dwarf galaxies are disturbed by gravitational tides’ from nearby larger galaxies.”
Small, faint galaxies known as dwarfs are generally located in or close proximity to larger galaxies or galaxy clusters. They might therefore be affected by the gravitational effects of their larger neighbours. Recent research reveals that some of these dwarfs have distorted appearances, as though the cluster environment has disturbed them.
The Standard Model does not predict “such perturbations in the Fornax dwarfs,” said Pavel Kroupa, Professor at the University of Bonn and Charles University in Prague, and added that it’s because dark matter halos of these dwarfs should partially protect them from tides brought on by the cluster, according to the Standard Model.
Based on internal characteristics and distance from the gravitationally strong cluster centre, the authors calculated the expected level of disturbance of the dwarfs.
According to Asencio, the comparison revealed “if one wants to explain the observations in the standard model, the Fornax dwarfs should already be destroyed by gravity from the cluster centre even when the tides it raises on a dwarf are 64 times weaker than the dwarf’s own self-gravity.”
This goes against the findings of earlier research that the amount of force required to perturb a dwarf galaxy is roughly equal to the dwarf’s own gravity.
The authors deduced from this that the observed morphologies of the Fornax dwarfs cannot be self-consistently explained by the mainstream paradigm. Dr Hongsheng Zhao from the University of St Andrews said that their findings have significant ramifications for fundamental physics, and that they expect to find additional perturbed dwarfs in other clusters.
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